Sustainability and the environment encompass an enormous number of issues. It is, of course, impossible to cover them all in a single event. That’s why the scientific committee of STECONF hand-picks the most relevant and pressing issues that can make the biggest impact on moving the conversation forward.
The World Conference on Sustainability, Energy, and Environment will provide its attendees with engaging learning opportunities, lively networking sessions, and a platform to meet and connect with potential research partners and collaborators.
The major part of the radiation dose, which humans receive from natural radioactive sources, originate due to radon and its decay products inhalation. The health risk increases with the duration of radon exposure and it is also proportional to the radon concentration. Radon in buildings is considered to be the most important indoor air pollutant, with harmful effects on the health of the population. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the heating system and energy source on the indoor radon variation in the school buildings. The survey of 340 premises in 46 buildings was conducted from November/December 2019 to April/May 2020. A passive measurement method with detectors consisting of a CR-39 chip was used. The obtained geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon concentrations have been found to be 170 Bq/m3 and 2.09 respectively. Statistically significant differences of the radon concentration for the factors: location of the schools by municipalities (KW, р < 0.0001), types of school premises (KW, p<0.0001); location by floors (KW, p<0.0001) were found. The presence of heating system and type of used energy sources for heating influenced to the radon concentration variations (p <0.0001). The highest radon concentration is found in school buildings, where there is a common heating system, using the wood and coal as an energy source, while in the buildings where pellets is used the concentration is lowest. In school buildings with high radon concentration, the corrective measures should be taken to reduce the level.
One of the greatest scourges in Nigeria as of today without or with ignorance of unawareness among populace most especially in the urban centers which Lagos State can be taken as one is air pollution. The recent findings of Self-Orthodox Medication for the treatment of cardiovascular disease particularly Hypertension among the youthful ages in Nigeria between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age called a singularly fantastic attention by The Vision for Teenagers Adolescents and Youths Wellbeing Initiative to believe that not only economic disenchantment, political destabilization and community chaos in the society that trigger the penetration of cardiovascular disease but "AIR POLLUTION" through respiratory inhalation of some air particles which can cause reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions in addition with cancerous destabilization. Despite of the lessons, education and government campaign against the odd of climatic destructions in Nigeria, many Nigerians are still on verge and habit of public burning such as smoking of raw yam, plantain and public cooking using charcoal and clay pot which directly intervene with the Ozone layers, destroying our climatic system at the atmospheric level to the layer with the close proximity with the Ozone system. Carbon monoxide is chemically generated through the burning of charcoal which many Nigerians are unaware. The Ozone layer which climatically plays an important role in the protection of ultraviolet radiation has been seriously intervened with, through its destruction by day-to-day burning of particles in the public places that generate a sort of diameter that intensify the melting of the Ozone system. This paper does not only justify the intervention of those particles alone but where the pollutants are additionally generated to cause respiratory disasters and harmful effects in and on humans. The high concentration of industrial meteorological variables and pollutants such as Sulphur dioxide, Carbon monoxide and other air pollutants from industries are also major concerns which government does not really focus on. The release of those chemical inside various channels such as drainage system rather than being closely converted to non-harmful chemicals are serious challenge in Lagos State because many underserved people who live below $1.00 per day walk through many of these channels to pick used bottles, wash and used them to cock unlawful and illegal bottled waters which are not properly and officially screened by NAFDAC to resell to the public.
Recent developments in the areas of 3D/4D printing have forced to rethink the ways of conventional manufacturing procedures by offering simple but effective alternatives for the product design and manufacturing. The fused deposition modelling (FDM) printing technology, which is one of the main additive manufacture technologies, is widely used in many fields with multiple materials. It shows a rapid development over the last decade, and hence FDM printing machines with remarkable advancements are commercially available today for a reasonable price. In this work, the effects of several set parameters on the properties of 3D printed parts and their printing quality were explored. It seems that the fill density significantly affects parts’ mechanical properties where the maximum tensile stress and Young’s modulus increased linearly with the fill density. Moreover, the shape of the parts can influence the fibre alignment and hence to their structural properties. The mechanical properties of the printed parts and the printing time were also affected significantly with different layer thicknesses. Parts with different fill patterns showed highly varying properties; e.g. samples with linear fill pattern showed the best tensile properties where samples with the “diamond” fill pattern proved to have large deformations during mechanical tests. Furthermore, the effects of different materials (i.e., PLA, ABS, carbon fibre reinforced PLA and ABS) on parts’ properties were also observed and the results showed that the parts printed from both carbon reinforced PLA and ABS are better in tensile properties than pure PLA and ABS, while they are also more brittle in nature due to the fibrous structure.
The objective of this study is to analyse and compare classical time series and deep learning models for energy load prediction. Energy predictions are important for management and sustainable systems. After analysing the climacteric factors impact on energy load (a case study in Albania) we considered classical and deep learning models to perform forecasts. We have used hourly and daily time series for a period of three years. In total respectively 26,280 hours and 1095 days. Average temperature is considered as external variable in both statistical and deep learning models. The dynamic evolution of hourly (daily) load is correlated with hourly (daily) average temperature. The performance of the proposed models is analysed and evaluated based on accuracy measurements (MSE, RMSE, MAPE, AIC, BIC etc.) and graphics results of statistical tests. In-sample and out-of-sample accuracy is evaluated. The models show competitive performance to some recent works in the field of short-and medium-term energy load forecasts. This work may be used by stakeholders to optimize their activities and obtain accurate forecasts of energy system behaviour.
This paper presents the reader with the overarching research topic: Examining the drivers to sustainable consumer behavioural intention in the Irish aviation industry. This research will examine the underlying factors that facilitate or hinder a consumer’s sustainable consumption pertaining to aviation, in order to advance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). The SDG’s were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a call to end poverty, to protect the planet and to ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by the year 2030. As noted by Crane et al. (2019) consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about environmental, social and economic issues, and are willing to act on those concerns. More recently, the impact of a consumers environmental footprint has led consumers to re-evaluate their purchase habits and in some cases consumers are more willing to spend more on products and services with environmental characteristics (Ferrara, et al., 2020). Accordingly, this has pushed businesses to re-examine their sustainable efforts. Golob et al. (2018) cites that although consumers may feel a moral responsibility to live sustainably, they cannot do so without effective support from governments, NGOs and the businesses with which they interact. He notes that consumers may be aware of the importance of sustainable consumption but this may not translate into sustainable consumer behaviour. This research seeks to understand consumers attitudes and behavioural intention towards sustainable aviation and travel and examine the attitude-behaviour gap in sustainable tourism and aviation in Ireland.
According to FAO, world population will increase to more than 8 billion people in 2030, which will require more safe and healthy food; therefore, innovative agricultural practices optimizing natural resources and reducing environmental impact are strongly required. Plant biostimulants, developed to promote plant growth, seed germination and enhance horticultural crop productivity, represent a promising solution to increase agricultural production. The development of biostimulants from industry by-products provides innovative and environmentally friendly solutions to disposal and reuse of waste, as required by the European Green Deal. At present, protein hydrolysates represent the main class of biostimulants as they increase yield and product quality of various crops. Several sources of proteins are used to produce protein hydrolysates, but in this context of environmental protection and green economy, the development of biostimulants from industry by-products is of great interest. Industry by-products of animal origin (ABPs) are classified into three categories based on the degree of risk for animal, human and environmental health; category 3 ABPs must be hydrolyzed to a molecular weight below 10.000 Da, to comply with safety criteria, according to EU Reg.142/2011, Annex X. This research aims to set up and validate an analytical method for a reliable determination of the high limit molecular weight of hydrolysed proteins derived from Category 3 ABPs. A gel filtration chromatography method was developed and validated according to Eurachem and ISO guidelines. Acceptance criteria of linearity R2>0.990, repeatability RSD%≤5, intermediate repeatability RSD%≤10 and uncertainty measurement U≤20% were met. Therefore, it is considered suitable to assess the compliance of the hydrolysed proteins to 10.000 Da limit in biostimulants from animal by-products.
Cement and concrete production are characterised by high energy and carbon intensity, placing them amongst the highest polluting industrial sectors globally. Addressing the growing need for sustainability, novel concrete solutions become increasingly popular for mitigating the negative environmental impacts, such as high CO2 emissions output and the overuse of raw materials, providing alternatives to conventional concrete products. The industry is lacking a jointly approved analytical framework, which can evaluate business models focused on sustainable concrete solutions across economic, environmental, and social dimensions. Our research compares selected sustainable business model frameworks to assess the best fit for the sustainable concrete product proposed by the CIRCLE project, which develops a permeable mixture by substituting nonrenewable aggregates found in the conventional concrete mix with shellfish waste. Different business model frameworks are tested against production efficiency, area of application, customer involvement, and supply of raw materials as elements found in cement/concrete production and select the most appropriate framework to analyse the CIRCLE solution. The study concludes that the Triple-Layered Business Model Canvas (TL-BMC) is the most appropriate framework for stakeholders to identify and establish successful business models focused on sustainable concrete.
The cement and concrete industry faces vast challenges that require a new vision based on a circular economy characterized by extended partnerships that engage both upstream and downstream supply chain sectors where through shared values can potentially lead in the creation of economic, environmental, and social value. Here we report the findings of a study conducted among a sample of 103 multinational enterprises (MNEs) engaged in cement and concrete production. The research objectives are twofold: (a) to examine the effect of various corporate governance factors on the firm’s circular economy-based business strategy; and (b) to investigate the effects of each of the firm’s sustainability practices on financial (i.e., return on assets), and financial market (i.e., Tobin’s q) measures of performance on the firm’s circular economy business strategy. Our findings indicate that the existence of a green corporate governance can have a favourable effect on the development of a circular economy business strategy where firm’s following a circular economy business strategy can benefit financially in the short and long term.
Water pollution by heavy metals is a noteworthy ecological issue. Fast industrial advancement has expanded the arrival of heavy metals in water bodies. In this study, we investigate biological treatment technique to remove heavy metals from wastewater by using metabolic dynamic batch experiments. Two Serum bottles, one having sulfur particle and other having sulfur powder as a carrier were used and anaerobic conditions were applied, the sludge used in bottles was derive from Wencheng wastewater treatment plant having 36.8g/L total Suspended solids (TSS) and 23.5g/L volatile suspended solids (VSS). The concentrations of sulfide in 8.48g/L of sulfur powder and sulfur particles were 350mg/L and 400mg/L respectively. In second stage for acetate concentration, for sulfur powder the concentration was 600mg/L and 550mg/L for sulfur particles. Removal of zinc was 100% at the inlet of 3.125mmol/L and 9.375mmol/L of Zinc but slight reduction of 10% on 18.750mmol/L was detected.
What if making organizations sustainable was the key to sustainability for the planet? All human organizations revolve around projects. And projects mean teams. However, we know that tensions are high, both within and between teams: “We mustn’t waste time!" proclaims the time-to-market manager, "time is money!”. And as soon as a project is finished - often with the overcoming of numerous obstacles - we dive headfirst into the next project, learning little or nothing from previous projects... "You must do more and do better, but with less!” encourages the team leader, in search of results at all costs, even if it means pitting team members against each other! Surpass yourself, yes! But how can we do more and do better with everyone onboard? The first phase of the Sustainability Mirror Tree (SMT) structures the project’s key objectives in triangles (silver) in order of importance. In mirror mode, the second phase of the SMT converts the objectives - upcoming, ongoing or achieved - into sustainable and shared fruit (gold). Achieving objectives is no longer the final goal for teams, but rather a means of reaping fruit...Reaping fruit is not the end of the process, it enables the fruit to be passed on...Passing on is not a management procedure, it is the means of achieving assimilation and unity ...Assimilation and unity are not an alternative for organizations and for the planet, they are the key to their sustainability! Reaching objectives is silver, reaping fruit from them, to pass on to achieve unity and assimilation, is gold. We will present practical, agile, universal, direct ways to implement SMT everywhere.
Biogas production from agricultural residues is one option for generating cleaner energy and reducing waste. However, it is often difficult for investors to assess the viability of building a biogas plant due to technological, economic, as well as environmental factors, which complicate the preliminary design of the plant and hence, affect the return on investment of the project. To overcome this issue, this research proposed a decision support tool for estimating the environmental and economic assessment of biogas systems from lignocellulosic materials. The tool was categorized into five sections that are raw materials selection, biogas utilization options, technical selection, economic analysis, and environmental analysis. The system was validated with data obtained from three existing plants in Thailand and it showed promising results for practical use. Ultimately, this decision support tool will help investors narrow down the alternative solutions as per user requirements and prevailing conditions, whilst promoting sustainable development of biogas technology.